Louisa Tsweleng

Personal information
Nationality: South African
Address: Department of Advanced Nursing Science
University of Venda, Private Bagx5050, Thohoyandou, 0950
Limpopo province, South Africa

Current position:
Lecturer: Department of Advanced Nursing Science, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa

Educational qualifications:
2012-now: Registered as a PHD student at the University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa
2011 : Doctoral research methodology, University of Johannesburg
2001-2004: Mcur (advanced midwifery and neonatal nursing science), University of Johannesburg
1996-1998: Bcur I E (Nursing education and Administration), University of Pretoria

Professional experience:
2001-2012: Lecturer, Department of Advanced midwifery and neonatal nursing science, Ga- Rankuwa nursing college, Pretoria, South Africa
1997-2000: Lecturer, Departments of general nursing, midwifery, community nursing and nursing administration. Lebone College of nursing, Pretoria, South Africa

Recent presentation:
2012 : Power point presentation: Topic:Reflection of the impact of the ultrasound training on
the practice of the post advanced midwifery graduates. Chris Hani Bara nursing college, Johannesburg, South Africa
2008 : Poster. Topic: The Mothers’ Experience of Pain Management during Labour. The 27th
Conference in Priorities in Perinatal Care. Indaba Hotel. Sandton South Africa

The mother’s experience of pain management during labour
Tsweleng M. L

Objective
The objective of this study explores and describes the experiences of first-time mothers regarding pain management during the first stage of labour.

Methods
Aqualitative approach involving phenomenology was used. Midwives were also interviewed to determine their assessment and management strategies in this regard in order to get abroader perspective of the focus of inquiry

Findings
The data collected from mothers revealed three themes and they are; the care rendered needs / wishes and beliefs / feelings of the mothers regarding the care given. These themes were further subdivided into small headings/categories as specified in the data and elaborated on.
Eight categories of care strategies emerged from the data gathered from midwives.
Information from both the mothers and midwives were then extensively discussed and compared to the existing literature

Conclusions and recommendations
Conclusions were drawn and recommendations formulated to assist midwives and other health care professionals to improve their caring modalities, in the management of patients with pain during the first stage of labour

Mai Yamanoi

Personal information:
Nationality: Japanese
Address: 1-50-1 MUTSUURA-HIGASHI, KANAZAWA-KU
YOKOHAMA 236-8503, JAPAN

Current position:
Assistant Professor, Department of Home Care Nursing, Graduate School of Nursing Kanto Gakuin University, Japan

Educational qualifications:
2011-2013: MSN. Department of Community Health Nursing, Yokohama City University, Japan.
2007-2008: Reserch Student of Nursing Education, Kanagawa University of Human Service, Japan.
1997-2001: Bachelor of Economics, Faculty of Economics, Kanagawa University, Japan.
1992-1995: Technical Associate of Nursing, Yokohama City University, Japan.

Professional experience:
2013-now: Assistant Professor, Department of Home Care Nursing, Graduate School of Nursing Kanto Gakuin University, Japan.
2011-2013: Teaching Assistant
2008-2011: Assistant Professor, Department of Gerontology Nursing, Kawasaki City Collage of Nursing, Japan.
2004-2007: RN, Wakakusa Nursing care home for the physically handicapped, Japan.
1995-2003: RN, Department of Emergency Nursing, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Japan.

Recent publications:
 Yamanoi M., Tadaka E., Taguchi H.R. Factors related to nutritional status in the community-dwelling elderly. Journal of Academy of Community Health Nursing,2013;16(1).( in press)
 Takano M., Matsumoto K., Yamanoi M., Interaction of geriatric nursing how exercise senior leads the junior, Bulletin of Kawasaki City College of Nursing,2011;16(1),65-72.
 Yamanoi M., Matsumoto K., Takano M., For technical education with the aim of practical skills and strengthening the current state of technology experience in nursing Geriatric Nursing Practice, Bulletin of Kawasaki City College of Nursing,2010;15(1),95-102.
 Yamanoi M., The role of the nursing home for mother and children with disabilities to severe, Report of Nursing research, 2008; 33,279-286.

A conversation analysis of Type 1 and Type2 communication
between caregivers and patients in geriatric facilities in Japan

Mai Yamanoi

RN,MSN, Department of Home Care Nursing, Graduate School of Nursing Kanto Gakuin University, Japan

Objective: This paper is to present part of the research we have conducted on the mechanisms of provider-patient communication in geriatric facilities in Japan. In our previous studies, we have identified two different types of communication between caregivers and residents: Type I (task- oriented) and Type II (life-worldly) communication. Based on those results, we examined the mechanism of communication between them, using a qualitative method of analysis.
Method: We used Conversation Analysis to investigate conversational features of the two types of communication ,were found in the linguistic exchanges between caregivers and residens. Study subjects comprised 37 residents. In this study, for the purpose of detailed, sequential analysis, we chose two typical examples of the two types of communication between them.
Results: We found that, in Type 2 communication, the elderly were given the possibility of expanded utterance opportunities and self-initiated utterances as nursing staff presented life–worldly topics of elderly residents as topics that the elderly could and should talk about whereas, in Type 1 communication, task-oriented speeches were initiated by caregivers, giving residents little opportunities to talk, and thus the patients’ utterances were restricted to short replies.

Maria Flynn

Current position;
Adjunct Professor of Nursing, University of Ottawa, Canada and Lecturer, Directorate of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, University of Liverpool.

Educational qualifications:
PhD, MSc, BSc (Hons), PGCE, RGN

Professional experience:
Recent Funded Research Projects
2012 – M Flynn and D Mercer. £9,922 (NHS NW)NHS values and behaviours evidence review and survey of NW admissions tuto rs.
2011 – L Appleton, M Flynn, R Jones, P Large, T Kavanagh, D McGlashen, C Wood. £23,336 (Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology Charitable Trust) A study exploring the impact of language on adjustment to cancer following treatment.
2010 – M Flynn; £57,000 (Merseyside & Cheshire Cancer Network) A review of cancer awareness in Merseyside and Cheshire
2009 – M Flynn & D Mercer, J Cambil (Granada), M Barchiesi (Ancona) & D Theofanidou (Thessaloniki) €96,000 (European Union Leonardo da Vinci Programme) An e-survey of European nurses and allied health professionals use of the internet in professional practice.
2009 – M Flynn & J Davenport; £24,499 (Department of Health/Association of Greater Manchester Authorities) Review of Evidence and Survey of Smoke Free Stadia
2009 – M Flynn & R Hunter; £24,912 Department of Health Medical Education & Training) Exploring the associations between IMGs IELTS scores, communications scores and appointability following interview for medical specialty training
2008 – M Flynn & S Meah; £80,000 (Heywood, Middleton and Rochdale PCT) Documentary review and postal survey to evaluate four healthy lifestyle schemes
2008 – M Flynn & R Hunter; £30,101 (The Dementias and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Network (DeNDRoN) Development of an evidence based strategy to increase patient and public participation in research
2008 – M Flynn & A Smith; £44,796 (Department of Health Medical Education and Training) A review of English language (IELTS) requirements for entry to medical specialty training programmes.

Recent Papers and Publications (Selected)
Flynn M and Mercer D (2013) What price compassionate care in an NHS ‘market’? Nursing Times 109 (7), 12-14
Williams N and Flynn M (2013) Review of the efficacy of Neuromuscular stimulation in critically ill patients Physiotherapy Theory and Practice (Accepted for Publication March 2013)
Williams N and Flynn M (2013) An exploratory study of physiotherapists views of early rehabilitation in critically ill patients Physiotherapy Theory and Practice (Accepted for Publication March 2013)
Moffatt M and Flynn M (2013) A critical narrative review of the safety of acupuncture in pregnancy Journal of the Acupuncture Association of Chartered Physiotherapists (Accepted for publication July 2012)
Caton ERJ and Flynn M (2013) Management of Anaphylaxis in the ED: A clinical audit. International Emergency Nursing. 21, 64-70.
Mercer D and Flynn M (2012) Caring values in a corporate culture: Defending compassionate nursing practice in the NHS Nursing Inquiry (Under review)
Cambil Martin J, Flynn M, Villaverde C (2011) Quality assurance of nursing websites: Development and implications of the ALEU method. Computers Informatics Nursing, 29 (9), 523-530.
Wright AD and Flynn M (2011) Prone positioning of ventilated patients: A review of evidence. Nursing in Critical Care 16 (1); 19-27.
Dave Mercer

Current Position: Lecturer, the University of Liverpool, Directorate of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Liverpool, England. 2012 – Adjunct Professor to the School of Nursing, and member of the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, at the University of Ottawa, Canada.

Educational qualifications:
PhD, MSc, BSc (Hons), PGCE, RGN

Funded Research Project Experience
2012 – Flynn M and Mercer D £9,922 (NHS NW) NHS values and behaviours evidence review and survey of NW admissions tutors.
2011 – Mercer D, Chandley M and Cromar-Hayes M £25,000 (Merseycare NHS Trust) Implementing a recovery approach on two wards of a secure hospital: An action research approach.
2010 – Barr W, Mercer D, Hodge S, Haigh K, Thomas N, Brown A and Noblett S £30,000 (Merseycare NHS Trust). An exploration of the discursive construction of risk in forensic mental health practice.
2009 – Flynn M, Mercer D, Cambil, J (Granada), Barchiesi M (Ancona) and Theofanidou, D (Thessaloniki) €96,000 (European Union Leonardo da Vinci Programme) An e-survey of European nurses and allied health professionals use of the internet in professional practice.
2008 – Hodge S, Barr W, Mercer D, Hagan T, Clayton J, Graham S, Haigh K £57, 796 (Merseycare NHS Trust). A first stage evaluation of the Merseycare Complex Psychological Problems Service.

Publications and Presentations (Selected)
Flynn M and Mercer D (2013) Is compassion possible in a market-led NHS? Nursing Times [Invited paper], 109 (7): 12-14.
Mercer D (2012) ‘Girly mags and girly jobs’: Pornography and gendered inequality in forensic practice. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 22: 15-23.
Mercer D (2012) Policing pornography in high-secure care: The discursive construction of gendered inequality. In Holmes D, Rudge T, Perron A (eds) (Re)Thinking violence in health care settings: A critical approach. Surrey, Ashgate.
Mercer D and Perkins E. (2011) Of men and monsters: The discursive construction of sex and sexual offending in high-secure psychiatric care. The International Academy of Law and Mental Health 32nd Congress, Berlin, Germany.
Perkins E and Mercer D (2011) Dangerous pictures and dangerous men: Female nursing discourse about working in a treatment environment for sexual offenders. The International Academy of Law and Mental Health 32nd Congress Berlin, Germany.
McKeown M and Mercer D (2010). Using critical theory to understand special needs offenders and secure care environments. The International Institute on Special needs Offenders and Policy Research, Niagara Falls, Canada.
McKeown M and Mercer D (2010). Mental health care and resistance to fascism. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17: 152-161.
Mercer D (2009) Research in state institutions: A critical issue for forensic nursing. Journal of Forensic Nursing, 5: 107-108 [Invited paper].
Mercer D (2009). Talkin’ forensic nursing blues: The discursive texturing of high-security care. Invited keynote speaker at Custody and Caring: International Biennial Conference on the Nurse’s Role in the Criminal Justice System. University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
Richman J and Mercer D (2004) ‘Modern language’ or ‘spin’? Nursing, ‘newspeak’ and organisational culture: New health scriptures. Journal of Nursing Management, 12: 290-298.
Mercer D (2004) ‘My weariness amazes me’: The rhetoric and reality of research. Invited keynote presentation at the Forensic Psychiatric Perspectives and Possibilities Conference, Wellington, New Zealand

CRITICAL ISSUES IN NURSING: THE COST OF COMPASSIONATE CARE IN MODERN EUROPE

Maria Flynn, Dave Mercer

The English National Health Service [NHS] is being subjected to widespread and radical reform, where the principle of compassionate care is increasingly seen as the driving force of quality services and excellence in nursing practice. A number of high-profile cases of failings in the NHS have attracted media attention, where discourse typically focuses on the shortcomings of nurses and the nursing profession, generating academic commentaries on the causes and effects of a ‘compassion deficit’.
The authors report the findings of a comprehensive review of national and international evidence focused on core professional values. One hundred and seventy seven (177) publications were evaluated and a total of fourteen (14) international and nineteen (19) UK research reports were included. Data from the studies were extracted and synthesized as a narrative. The key themes showed that caring and compassion are inherent nursing values which are influenced by the training curriculum, professional role modeling, but mostly by the organization and culture in which nurses’ work.
In this paper the findings of the review are discussed in relation to how compassionate care can be upheld in a European Union suffering an unprecedented financial crisis. Although the focus is on current debates in the United Kingdom, this is an issue that has global import for the nursing profession in terms of clinical practice, healthcare management and nurse education. The first part of the paper sketches out the political context of nursing, and the second section explores the implications for clinical practice. In conclusion we suggest that any failure in compassion is more likely due to political and organizational culture, and not to any shortcomings of nurses or nursing practice.

Key Words: Compassionate care; compassion deficit; nursing care; healthcare culture; healthcare markets; evidence review.

Name: Yasuko Fukaya

Personal information:
Nationality: Japan
Address: School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan

Current position:
Professor, School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan

Educational qualifications:
1999: PhD., Health Science, Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan
1987-1989: MNS., St. Luke’s College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan
1985-1987: Bachelor of Nursing, St. Luke’s College of Nursing, Tokyo, Japan

Professional experience:
1998- now: Professor, School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan
1996-1998: Associate Professor, School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan
1991-1996: Associate Professor, Kanagawa Prefectural College Nursing Medical Technology Public Health, Kanagawa, Japan
1989-1991: Public Health Nurse, South Yamato Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan

Recent publications:
 Yasuko Fukaya, Takanori Kitamura. Status of Capability ADL and Performance ADL (ADL Gap) in Community Elderly With Disabilities and Development of ADL Gap Self-Efficacy. In Jean, B, G. Editor & Charlotte ,V. Editor, Activities of Daily Living:Performance,Impact on Life Quality and Assistance. 2013(in press); NY, USA, Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 97-118
 Yasuko Fukaya, Sachiyo Koyama, Yusuke kimura, Takanori Kitamura. Change in speaking time of elderly people who require facility care when sosial communication from staff is increased in japan, USM internatinal nursing confernce 2011. 2011; University Sains Malaysia, 51-57
Yasuko Fukaya, Sachiyo Koyama, Yusuke kimura, Takanori Kitamura. Education to promote verbal communication by caregivers in geriatric care facilities. Japan Academy of Nursing Science. 2009 : 16 : 91-103

Statistical Analysis of Relationship between Caregivers Type II Speech
and Elderly Utterances in Geriatric Facilities in Japan

Yasuko Fukaya1, Takanori Kitamura2, Sachiya Koyama3

1School of Health Sciences, Tokai University, Japan, 2School of Law, Tokai University, Kanagawa,Japan, 3Kitazato University, Kanagawa, Japan

Objective: This study is based on the research that we have previously conducted, in which we found that the communication between caregivers and elderly residents in geriatric facilities in Japan fell into 2 Types: ‘Task-oriented ’ (Type1) and ‘Life-Worldly’ (Type2) communication. We also found an educational intervention increased the duration and frequency of caregivers Type 2 speech. The current study further investigates this topic, by analyzing the ways in which caregivers Type2 speech affects elderly residents’ utterances, particularly focusing on residents’ self-initiated utterances.
Method: Study subjects comprised 37 residents and 249 caregivers. Measurement of the type and quantity of caregiver speech and elderly utterances was performed twice for each facility for a total of two days of data. We recorded all conversation between them, using a recording device, based on which a verbatim transcript was produced. When changes in the duration of Type II speech by caregivers were compared before and after educational intervention, two groups were classified (Increase Group/Decrease Group). Changes in the duration and frequency of the elderly utterances and self-initiated utterances before and after educational intervention for caregivers were statistically analyzed through the comparison of two groups.
Results: After intervention elderly utterance duration in response to caregivers’ Type II speech increased 112.64 s (SD = 224.48) in the Increase Group, but declined 59.13 s (SD = 133.18) in the Decrease Group, a significant difference (p = .01). When these were stratified according to the type of utterance, the duration of Type II utterances increased 61.38 s (SD = 111.57) in the Increase Group, but declined 88.16 s (SD = 170.25) in the Decrease Group, a significant difference (p = .01). The frequency of utterances also increased 28.43 times (SD = 44.60) in the Increase Group, but decreased 37.25 times (SD = 40.60) in the Decrease Group, also significant (p = .001). Comparing self-initiated elderly utterances in the Increase Group and Decrease Group in response to Type II speech by staff, the duration of self-initiated utterances in the Increase Group increased 27.76 s (SD = 69.75) and decreased 19.13 s (SD = 56.44) in the Decrease Group, a significant difference (p = .04). When these were stratified by the type of self-initiated utterances, compared to an increase of 20.43 s (SD = 52.00) in the duration of Type II self-initiated utterances in the Increase Group, the Decrease Group showed a decrease of 19.94 s (SD = 39.51), which was significant (p = .01).
Conclusions. This study showed that when the duration of Type II speech by caregivers increased, the duration and frequency of Type II utterances and self-initiated by the elderly tended to increase.

Youssef Masharawi

Current position:
Senior Lecturer, Head of Spinal Research Laboratory, Physical Therapy Department, Sackler Faculty of Medicine Member of Associate Board-Spine Journal, USA

Educational qualifications:
2007-2008: Post-Doc., Back Center, Odense, Denmark
1999-2003: Ph.D, Anatomy & Anthropology, Tel-Aviv U.
1995-1996: M.APP.Sc, Manual Therapy, University of South Australia
1986-1990: B.P.T., Physical Therapy, Tel-Aviv U.

Major publication (2010-2012):
1. Dar G., Masharawi Y., Peleg S., Steinberg N., May H., Medlej B., Hershkovitz I. Schmorl’s nodes distribution in the human spine and its possible etiology. European Spine Journal; 19(4)670-675. 2010.
2. Masharawi Y., Dar G., Peleg S., Steingberg N., Medlej B., May H. Hershkovitz I. A Morphological Adaptation Of The Thoracic And Lumbar Vertebrae To Lumbar Hyperlordosis In Young and Adult Females. European Spine Journal; 19(5):768-773. 2010.
3. Abbas J., Hamoud K., Masharawi Y., May H., Medlej B., Ori H., Peled N., Hershkovitz I. Ligamentumflavum thickness in normal and stenotic lumbar spines. Spine; 20(35): 1225-30. 2010.
4. Abbas J., Hamoud K., May H., Hay O., Medlej B., Masharawi Y.Peled N., Hershkovitz I. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar spine configuration. European Spine Journal; 19(11):1865-73. 2010.
5. Steinberg N., Siev-Ner I., Peleg S., Dar G., Masharawi Y., Hershkovitz I. Injury pattern in young non-professional dancers. Journal of Sports Sciences; 29(1):47-54.2011.
6. Dar G., Masharawi Y., Peleg S., Steinberg S., May H.,Medlej B., Hershkovitz I. The Epiphyseal Ring: A Long Forgotten Anatomical Structure with Significant Physiological Function. Spine;36(11):850-6. 2011.
7. Abbas J., Hamoud K., Peleg S., May H., Masharawi Y., Cohen H., PeledN., and Hershkovitz I. Facet joint orthrosis in normal and stenotic lumbar spines. Spine; 36(240:E1541-6. 2011.
8. Masharawi Y., Salame K. Shape variation of the neural arch in the thoracic and lumbar spine: characterization of its asymmetry and relationship with the vertebral body. Clinical Anatomy; 24(7):858-67. 2011.
9. Moller A., Masharawi Y. The effect of first ballet classes in the community on thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, hip external rotation and joint laxity in young girls. Physical Therapy in Sport; 12(4):188-93. 2011.
10. Beladev N., Masharawi Y. The effect of group-exercising on females with non-specific chronic low back pain in a sitting position. A pilot study. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation; 24(3):181-8. 2011.
11. Masharawi Y. Lumbar Shape characterization of the neural arch and vertebral body in spondylolysis: A comparative skeletal study. Clinical Anatomy; 25(2):224-230. 2012.
12. Mannion A., O’Riordan D, Dvorak J, Masharawi Y.The relationship between psychological factors and performance on the Biering-Sorensen back muscle endurance test. Spine Journal; 11(9):849-57. 2011.
13. Masharawi Y., Kjaer P., Manniche C., Bendix T. Lumbar sagittal shape variation vis-à-vis sex during growth: a 3-year follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study in children from the general population. Spine;37:501-7. 2012.

The effect of group exercising with directional and positional preferences
on females with non-specific chronic low back pain.

Masharawi Youssef

Spinal Research Laboratory, Physical Therapy Department, School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

BACKGROUND: Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) is a common cause of disability in everyday functioning in the modern world and a financial burden on the patient and society. Most common treatment in NSCLBP is conservative and including medicines and physiotherapy. The group practices advantage over other types of practices because it focuses on the patient’s sense of security, his high response, willingness to support the other and thus increases his motivation and ability to examine and report on his improvement. Most studies directional preferences note especially the sagittal plane and backward movement (extension) in particular as manual treatment and exercise. Despite the importance of directional preference, there was no deep research of other directions, such as rotation, and their contribution to improve NSCLBP. Similarly, most studies on active group exercises in NSCLBP used a mixture of body positioning in their protocols with no preferences for weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing exercises.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of group exercising with positional and directional preferences on range of motion, pain intensity, and function parameters in females with non-specific CLBP.
METHODS: Three randomized controlled pilot studies were conducted on females aged 40 to 70 who have suffered from NSCLBP. The exercise protocols were given bi-weekly for 4 weeks and were based on: a- non-weight-bearing positions; b- weight-bearing positions, and c- rotational exercises. All participants in the exercise and control groups were examined once before the program started (t0), and once at the end of the program (t1). The exercise groups were examined again after 2 months as a follow-up (t2). All groups received training on the right lifestyle for caring for the lower back. The control groups had a four week wait until the second session. The study tested range of motion of the lower back (flexion, extension, right and left rotation), pain intensity at rest (VAS) and assessment of functional capacity after NSCLBP by Roland Morris Disability Questionnaires (RMQ).
RESULTS: There were significant improvements in most dependent variables in the positional studies (weight-bearing and non-weight bearing positions) as follows (p<0.05): an increase in lumbar flexion and extension (mean differences of 6◦ for flexion and 4◦ for extension; reduction in VAS score (mean difference = 4.21); an increase in RMQ total score (mean difference= 10.76). Changes in the VAS score was highly correlated with changes in the RMQ score (r = −6.35). There were no significant improvements were indicated, however, in any of the dependent variables in the rotation exercise group (p>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Unlike the positive effect of group exercising conducted in weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positions, group exercising with directional preference into rotation did not affect the range of motion of the lower back, the pain intensity and functional level in individuals with non-specific CLBP.

Transition into Practice Conundrum

Lina Kantar

American University of Beirut, Lebanon

Although the educational preparation of nurses fails to meet the demands of health care systems, actual practice and clinical education of nursing graduates remains unexplored. In this multiple-case study design, the clinical practice of new graduates who had worked for three months was examined through the narratives of 20 preceptors. The preceptors were selected from three recognized hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and responses were analyzed using NV ivo 8 qualitative software. Through content analysis research technique, the curriculum documents of three baccalaureate nursing programs that prepared the graduates of the study’s key informants were analyzed. Curriculum analysis aimed at relating the role of the curriculum in the transition process. This exploration of graduates’ transition supports and extends the Dreyfus model of advanced beginner practice, and further articulates Tanner’s descriptions of the four dimensions of clinical judgment. In this study, two core aspects of transition were explored: (a) experiences of graduates in practice and (b) instructional strategies employed in the curriculum. Findings revealed that experiences of nurses when in transition occur in different forms, evolving into four phases of practice: exposure to clinical situations, conceptualization of change, decisions for acting and doing, and finally assessment of enacted decisions. From the perspective of the 20 preceptors, the clinical environment presents to the graduates as a set of skills that must be achieved and, eventually, creates an opportunity for learning from practical realities. The traditional curriculum dominated in the three programs and instructional approaches were almost all teacher-centered. Findings converge on the need for a transformation in nursing education, thus supporting relentless calls for curriculum innovation. Recommendations that have impact on graduates’ transition are categorized into academia and service. The joint efforts of both are cardinal for resolving transition challenges. The discipline, educational leaders, and in-service executives might benefit from the findings as suggestions for change are illuminated in regards to how nurses must be adequately prepared prior to assuming professional roles.

Challenges faced by student nurses when plotting partogram in labour units of Limpopo province, South AfricaCorrespondence address

KE Mothapo & SM Maputle

University of Venda

Introduction: Midwifery education and training prepare student midwives to manage a pregnant woman and her unborn baby. It is documented that management could be accurately achieved by plotting of partogram which is a specialized tool to monitor women during labour and delivery. However, it has been noted that its utilization in the labour units of Limpopo province needs to be explored.
The purpose of this study was to explore the theory and practica taught regarding plotting of the partogram and challenges faced by student nurses when plotting partogram during their education and training.
Methods: Population comprised of all the student nurses registered with the College of Nursing and in their Level 111 and Level 1V of their training at three campuses. Qualitative research design which was exploratory and descriptive was sed. Focus Group discussion, unstructured interview was used to collect data; a voice recorder was used to record conversation and field notes were also written by the researcher. Data was analyzed qualitatively in three phases – descriptive, analysis and interpretive.
Findings: Findings indicated that student nurses were taught different contents on partogram by the college staff and the registered midwives in the labour wards.
Recommendations: Researchers recommended that there should be more collaboration between the college and the labour wards staff and that the number of clinical lecturers increased. In conclusion, strategies to improve the integration of midwifery theory to practice on plotting of partogram by student nurses in labour units in Limpopo were recommended.

Key words: Plotting of partogram, Labour units, student nurses, theoretical and practical content

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